Until You Make It, Why Not Fake It: Simulating Vintage Artwork - Part Two

by Christopher Sperandio October 14, 2020 6 Comments

Until You Make It, Why Not Fake It: Simulating Vintage Artwork - Part Two

How to emulate vintage artworks using the three pillars of Line, Color and Texture: Three articles on the history of printing and some advice about art production

This is the second in a series of three articles to assist artists in creating works that simulate cheaply printed comic books using RetroSupply tools.

Today, we’ll look at the use of multiple colors in printing, a relatively recent development, considering the long history of the medium. Color is complicated, and paradoxically, taken for granted.

Color comic print effect by Christopher Sperandio

Lithography: The First Cheap and Fast Printing Technique

For more than a thousand years, printing meant applying ink onto a shallow carving and then pressing that carving onto another material.

In Germany in the early 1800s, Johann Alois Senefelder introduced a new form of printmaking he called Stone Printing. Lithography, as it came to be known, operates on the principal that oil and water don’t mix. Using limestone blocks quarried near Munich as the substrate, lithography became a cheaper and quicker method for printing.

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Many artists were attracted to the technology, as they could draw directly on the limestone with greasy crayons, producing a wide tonal range, a look that was very different from engraving and etching.

Once processed with chemicals, the stone blocks could be inked and printed. Hot on the heels of lithography came chromolithography, a method of layering multiple colors to create a single, rich image.

In thinking about lithography, jump over and look at images of the posters of Toulouse Lautrec, with their crayon-like quality.

An example of stone print lithography

How Chromolithography Helped Create High-Fidelity Prints

In the creation of a chromolithograph, there are two main considerations -- the grain of the stone, and the opacity of the inks involved.

The natural grain in the limestone, invisible to the naked eye, creates a natural dot pattern that allows for the printing of what appears to be a full range of gray tones. It’s this tonal range is what gave the chromolithograph its zing.

The other tool in the lithographer’s tool kit was the ink itself. Different layering effects were achieved by altering the relative opacity or transparency of the ink.

The combination of tonal range and ink opacity allowed artists and printers to make works approaching the fidelity of painting. The printer, working with the artist, would layer inks in order to create the maximum effect.

Chromolithography print of strawberries

A New Audience for Print

The industrial revolution meant rapid changes in technologies. Multi-color prints, at first exotic, became commonplace by the end of the 19th century.

In Leipzig, home to Germany’s printing industry, books like Meyer’s Lexicon contained dozens of color chromolithograph illustrations. As mechanization accelerated, printing technology continued to evolve as the audience for printed materials expanded. Young men were drawn to factories from farms.

As a result, literacy rates climbed as did the market for newspapers and other printed ephemera. This new audience for printed material came with an appetite for color and the sensational.

Penny Dread - Print from the early industrial revolution

I have two quick digressions to make. Rather than replacing each other, subsequent printing refinements and technologies continue to coexist, even today.

Walk into any decently-sized university art department, and you’re likely to find a print shop filled with racks containing limestone blocks, where students and faculty actively engaged in stone lithography. Old technologies don’t disappear the moment new approaches appear.

Relief printing in modern print shop

The second digression is to quickly mention the influence Japanese printmaking had on rapidly developing print technology.

Just as the Industrial Revolution was unfolding, restricted access to Japanese culture, which had been off-limits for hundreds of years, ended.

Color printmaking in Edo Period Japan was a subtle, sophisticated and fully mature art form. Japanese prints quickly made their way west to the centers of industrialization and had a tremendous impact, in spirit, if not technique.

Example of Japanese print

The Origin of Halftones

Lithography, for all its nuance, was still relatively slow, and relied on skilled printers. The development of photography and photomechanical processes accelerated the speed of industrial printing. Out of this was born the halftone, an essential feature of newspapers and therefore comics.

Akin to engraving plates (that is the creation of a raised metal surface), photomechanical plates employed halftones screens that, when imposed on photographic images, created small dots of varying size that would blend together in the eye to create gray tones. The printing plates were metal, made from molds.

The printing presses are the ones we know from movies and TV -- loud, hot, and the size of small buildings. These are the kinds of printers that were used by large newspapers, and it’s these large newspapers where comic strips were born. For all its terrific visual qualities, stone lithography couldn’t complete with mechanized, photomechanical relief printing…and the halftone.

Color Comics

Comic strip drawings (as well as every other part of the newspaper), were photographed to create a mold into which hot lead was poured. Alternately, the image was used to create a resist on the metal plate, which was then etched with acid. In either approach, the result was a metal printing plate with raised areas.

Color in comics (reserved solely for Sundays) was the result of the overlap of four colors, Cyan, Magenta, Yellow and Black (also known as K, so it wouldn’t be confused with Blue). A separate metal plate was created for each of these colors and each printed in turn on every copy.

Examine an early comic closely and you’ll see the little halftone dots and color overlaps. The cheaper the printing, the bigger the dots and the less attention spent on registration, or the aligning, of the color plates.

Artists made suggestions to the pressmen as to how the color should be applied, but it was the pressmen who would actually made the color plates. The results were varied – miscommunication and color errors were common.

Movement of the paper and plates on the press were also issues. Resulting color newspaper comic strips from the early 20th century, thus, have that distinct quality of being rushed, sloppy, and frankly, delicious -- almost singular.

Metal printing plate

Scrutinize Real Vintage Comics

In creating convincing simulations of old color halftones, then, it’s crucial to really scrutinize samples of early 20th century prints.

Archives of newspaper comic strips are available online.

Look at the color dots and see how the plates are misaligned. Try to isolate each of the four plates, and see how the combination of different sized dots creates the different colors. Colors in old comics are expeditious and gunky, sometimes there isn’t enough ink, and sometimes there’s too much. In order to achieve mimesis, we have to be faithful to the original process.

That’s where RetroSupply’s ColorLab comes in. With ColorLab, you manually build each of the colors in your work, adding Yellow, Magenta and Cyan in sympathy to get a faithful simulation of vintage color.

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Free Library of Vintage Comics to Study

Once you “get” how early comics were printed, creating an effective simulacrum is straightforward. The tutorial that comes with ColorLab perfectly explains how to use those tools.

The essential part of the recipe is to spend a few hours dissecting old comics strips using any of the tens of thousands of digitally archived all over the world.

One such repository is the scans of hundreds of amazing US Government comics available online from the library at the University of Nebraska, Lincoln.

Scroll down to the topic of “Government Comics” and get prepared to be lost for hours in 4-color goodness. But as you read, notice. Look at the registration, dot patterns and ink qualities.

Example of comic book print misregistraton

Final Thoughts on Color and Comic Printing

With a robust line, and the right kind of color dots, we’re almost at the point where we can make a convincing, retro-inspired “vintage” comic, but there’s one element still missing.

In the next installment, I’ll talk paper and texture. The final leg of our 3-legged milking stool. We’ll employ some textures and Photoshop trickery in order to mimic vintage comics so well that people will call you a witch, maybe ;-)


About the Author

Christopher Sperandio is an artist, writer and university professor. In 2015, he founded the Comic Art Teaching and Study Workshop at Rice University, where he teaches art and comics.

Pinko Joe, Sperandio’s first graphic novel, was published by Argle Bargle Books in 2020 and called “laugh out loud hilarious” by Broken Pencil Magazine. Volume two of this series will appear in 2021 via arglebarglebooks.com. Follow Sperandio on Instagram, Twitter, or visit his website.





Christopher Sperandio
Christopher Sperandio

Author


6 Responses

Collin
Collin

October 16, 2020

Great second installment. I look forward to the third!

Boscoe
Boscoe

October 14, 2020

A far, far better repository of old comic books is here: https://digitalcomicmuseum.com/ These guys have been scanning Golden Age comics that have fallen into the public domain for years now. Thousands and thousands of them. Scan quality varies depending on who scanned them, but there are many, many high quality scans that show off the paper quality just as if you were holding them in your hands irl.

Su Hall
Su Hall

October 14, 2020

I find the history of comics to be quite interesting. Thank you!

Amanda Whitehurst
Amanda Whitehurst

October 14, 2020

Very insightful! I learned a lot!

Michael Rhodes
Michael Rhodes

October 14, 2020

Tried the link to the Nebraska site and boyHowdy! Not user friendly at all… it’s the type of site that I feel there should be a community college course on how to use it. Anyway, a much better site for referencing old comics is:

https://digitalcomicmuseum.com/index.php

It has public domain comics from the 30’s on up to the 50’s (which is where the current demarcation of Public Domain is now, iirc). This site has high quality scans of these comics and the registration errors and such are preserved in all their glory. You’ll need to create a user name and password and deal with some pages that ask for donations (which aren’t required, but if you have a few coins of the realm laying about…). The diversity of content is pretty good and some even has the adverts scanned in the comic. You may need a comic viewer (able to show CBR amd CBZ files. Some of the content may be in PDF format) and I prefer the CBR/CBZ format because it’s easy to just grab a single page and use that JPG for reference in AF Designer or any other graphic app.

also, wondering if the coloring up to the ’80’s will be mentioned. That’s the time that Murphy Anderson changed the color pallette for comics by merely adding a 10% and 20% black screen to the colors (and the % of those screens were 25, 50, 70 and 100, btw). I know that the ColorLab can’t do the the black screen at those , but fortunately Clip Studio Paint can as part of its base app (i.e. not via an addon) - all I have to do is auto-record an action that creates a color layer effect for either Cyan, Magenta, Yellow or Key (black), set it to multiply, activate the screen layer effect, set it to 27.5 (or any amount) and adjust the angle for each color (Y 0º, C – 15, K – 45º and M 45º). Then all I have to do is draw on the specific layer using a simple brush (no texture) with a density the same as the percentage of the color ( 2 would be 20 or 25%, 3 would be 40 [to prevent a square dot when using a dot setting] or 50%, 4 would be 70 or 75% and Process color would be 100%). The real “magic” in this is in the Screen layer effect: it takes a grey scale and then automagically makes it into a screen pattern using the settings of the effect (like line screen, angle and type of “dot” — circle, square, oval, etc…) which makes using a ‘plain’ brush with just the density (opacity) set to the values listed earlier. And if I need to do gradiations, i just lay down the start and ending percentages, like a 100% density and 25% density and blend between the two and CSP does the toning as part of the screening process. It’s pretty cool, TBH, the only reason I got the color lab was for the paper textures and various brushes; as it’s so simple to change the size of the screen dots and such in CSP and I don’t how how it can be done with ColorLab outside of making a selection, changing the size of the texture used in the halftone brush — for all densities and colors which is about 16 brushes, and that’s not trivial to do as it is in CSP. Heck, I can create a autoAction (i.e. macro) that can do that for all the layers in CSP and switch back and forth in just seconds. Maybe this could be done in Affinity Photo, but that app is kinda daunting and I got it when it was first released. Not being a photog is a big minus when trying to use Photo….

Anyway thanks for this series of articles. About 80% of which can be used regardless of the app, so kudos on that part. I know that it may be unseemly to recomend another app, but sometimes you just have to use the best tool for the job…

Luis
Luis

October 14, 2020

Just GREATTTTTT!!!!!! 🙌🏼🙌🏼🔥🔥🔥🔥 thanksssss for sharing this great material!!!

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